Author Archives: alexhuynh0807

Traffic Issues and Solutions

Traffic is one of the most common issues in the big cities around the world. Traffic may cause chemical pollution and also sound pollution. Moreover, the rising levels of congestion and air pollution found in most of the world cities can be attributed directly to the rapidly increasing number of private cars in use. In order to reverse this decline in the quality of life in cities, attempts must be made to encourage people to use their cars less and public transport more.

 

Due to the increase of automotive technology, there is a rapid development of vehicle’s quantity that is a major cause leading to traffic congestions. Furthermore, it is said that the high volume of vehicles, the inadequate infrastructure and the irrational distribution of the development are main reasons for increasing traffic jam. Firstly, the inadequate infrastructure cannot handle the issue of traffic is also a crucial reason. The public transport such as bus, subway or train is not available and its quality is very bad, especially in the developing countries. Within some countries had railway system, it need to be developed to spread out the outskirt. For example, people living far away to the main suburb have driven their car every single day to the city, because of no supports public transport at the living area. What if all the people in this area use their vehicle, it will take a lot of parking space and fuel used as well.  Besides, the highway and road network is incapable of meeting the requirement of increasing number of vehicle. With the extremely number vehicle moving all days, it can’t avoid be damaged such as accidents. Therefore, it might need more maintaining services. Apparently, the irrational distribution and the lack of conscience make the traffic worse and worse. Most of head offices, the universities or hospitals often locate in the centre of city attracting a heavy flow of people in rush hour. At this time, we can see an atmosphere that including noise, air pollution or traffic jams. All of the effects will reduce living-standard of the resident about health, education and wasting time.

 
   

Not only traffic jams impact on human, it’s also about environment. The more transportations increase, the more pollution effects to. As you know, the fresh air level in the city is lower than standard which includes noise and fume release. The most “headache” time usually is rush hour when people come back home from city. The noises come from vehicle and engine, and also fume will take part in the atmosphere and become a main cause of health. In some Asian countries, people have to wear mask because of pollution too high. It effects in their eye, skin or breathe system. Transport is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions thus impacting climate change. The movement of people and goods accounts for almost 14% the state’s total CO2 emissions. Whilst the major sources of greenhouse gasses are power generation and land uses, transport is the fastest growing.

 
   

Vehicle brings out many disadvantages to human. People should find the better way to tackle those issues to make their life better. Because of the private transportations increasing, the government should encourage people to use public transport or vehicles with small size such as bicycles or make tax on private vehicles. However, in my particular view, the public tickets are still high and the quality of services is at average such as train delay, no bus at some suburb. That’s why the vehicle purchasing will go up day by day in other words people prefer private vehicle, because of its cheaper and more convenience. Particularly, in some Asia countries such as Viet Nam, the local authorities passed law restricting to the number of vehicles for each family. Under-controlled transport will lead to many issues about urbanization. Public transports should reduce the price for encouraging people using it. The government in developing countries should make an investment in the traffic facilities, namely, the public transport need improving to become more modern and convenience. In my opinion, each person has to do something to change that happens. It will be really hard but I think they will improve their life and defend them from personal or society problems. For example, people who cycling or walking everyday will get fit easy than people who used their car all the time. It also help our environment decrease pollution in society way. Nowadays, vehicle tax or maintaining it not low and it may create unexpected budget problem to some family who can support it. Transportation is increasing rapidly year time; infrastructures need to be repair to keep it in safe. That’s why people have to pay high tax fee. These day, fuel and oil price are increasing gradually. People also need to spend lots of money in this and it can’t protect atmosphere from pollution. That’s mean people pay money to destroy habitat and their health.

Public transports still have some problems but I think it’s the best way to solve those problems. Quite cheaper, eco-friendly, less fume emission is the target that authority aims to. It also has fewer accidents compared with private vehicle.

I’m not trying to stop people using their private car but they should reduce time spending it because of their health and our environment. I just give some my opinion to change something which is effecting to people. People should use public transport and being health that will help all of us and the earth in the general way.

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Self-Reflection

Looking back 14 classes of Change: Design as advocacy/activism/agency (ChangeAAA) have passed at this time when I’m writing this essay , i realize that i did gained a lot of thing and improve my think in the best way. Those classes influenced me in my thinking, vision, approaching ideas in the future.

To be honest, in the first few weeks, I had no definition about changeAAA. I thought it is a small range of changing designs instead of making human life enlightening. However, during 14week classes, all i gained were high quality and quantity knowledge; cooperating with other member; exchanging idea which will help me in the future. ChangeAAA is definitely valuable for everyone because the topic doesn’t have any boundary about human and our environment. It is aiming people save the world, and expands people life which is related with design thinks.

Firstly, looking back about myself, ChangeAAA have improved my mind from a normal person to activism. It means to me by somehow and my strategies not only focus in the appearances, ability but also it will impact on human life and guide it in a better way. For example, we are facing with global warming which is a controversial issue. People have to give a hand to help the earth. We had made mistakes and we have to solve it by reducing co2 emission or giving up plastic bags. If people just do two things can make our environment greener and protect habitat and animals as well. I still remember second assignment about giving up something. Our group choose stop drinking coffee for a while. At the start, I thought coffee just a normal drink to keep people awake. However, we realises it become really harmful drink if people abuse it. It attacks heart, your mind and reduce the quality of work. Moreover, stop drinking coffee is a way to control paper cup used. One of another thing is that i was impressed by the video about Steven hawking who has saved many people from motor neuron disease. It make me can’t believe in my eye. It was magical and humanity. He created a machine that help them can communicate with other people. They felt more confident to live and over cross the disease in physical and their mind as well.

Next, I had no awareness about that social network before taking part in ChangeAAA classes. However, it is exact the education system. Basically, i always gain many ideas and news that happen in all around the world every day. It has no limits category so i can learn more objects instead of only design. Therefore, twitter contributes my studies by giving more options than before. I should pay attention about my design that can defend the earth from global warm and environment issues. I also can communicate with other members in twitter. Similar with it, WordPress is a kind of blog that we can share information to each other. It’s really helpful because it presents our thinking or difficult solves about topics. Everyone always has different ideas in a field so i gained huge information every day.

Thirdly, ChangeAAA course gave me an opportunity to improve using illustrator. I spent a long time in the group work to make an info-graphic poster. In depth, our group worked together well because members exchanged indication and helped each other how to analysis and arrange layout. Moreover, we divided a number of works similarly so everyone can finish them perfectly. It’s not only i do my own work; i have to coordinate with my group the get the best work.

 

In the conclusion, ChangeAAA is beneficial for all designers in general. For me, it guides my ideas improving in design’s ability in protecting environment and human needs. The design will turn into more accessibility and eco-friendly.

 

 

Giving up Coffee

Coffee … one of the best drink in the world and have been consumed every single with high number. My country – Vietnam is high exported coffee country and coffee is seen a beverage for relaxing, refreshing your mind or hanging out with your friends. I don’t like Italian Coffee style but I am addicted on my country coffee style. Its the most fantastic taste ever and i used to drink it every single day. However, after I researched deeply inside the the fact that coffee impacts on people, I have to reduce my consumption to minimal. I knew coffee has many harm to human body. You can click on the link to have a look 7 dangers that coffee brings out. Therefore, after that day, I told myself and my family, friends that they should reduce drinking coffee to make their healthy 

Effects of noise pollution

Generally, problems caused by noise pollution include stress related illnesses, speech interference, hearing loss, sleep disruption, and lost productivity. Most importantly, there are two major effects we can look at:

Hearing
The immediate and acute effect of noise pollution to a person, over a period of time, is impairment of hearing. Prolonged exposure to impulsive noise to a person will damage their eardrum, which may
result in a permanent hearing.

Effects on general health
Health effects of noise include anxiety and stress reaction and in extreme cases fright. The physiological manifestations are headaches, irritability and nervousness, feeling of fatigue and decreases work efficiency. For example, being pounded by the siren of fire fighters, police or ambulance in your city all night everyday leave people (especially elderly people) stresses and tired in the morning.

Its is worth noting that these effects may not sound troubling, but the truth is, with time, the consequences can be very worrying.

Urbanization – Pros and Cons

Adverse effects of Urbanization

There is increasing competition for facilities  in urban areas, which results in several negative effects. Many people mainly farmers who move to cities in search of a better life  and better occupational opportunities end up as casual laborers  This leads to menacing problems of urbanization – the growth of slums.

Slums are urban areas that are heavily populated with substandard housing and very poor living conditions. These  result in  several problems.

  • Land insecurity – Slums are usually located on land, not owned by the slum dwellers. They can be evicted at any time by the landowners.
  • Poor living conditions – Crowding and lack of sanitation. This often contributes to outbreak of diseases. Utilities such as water, electricity and sewage disposal are also lacking in these areas.
  • Unemployment – Since the number of people aspiring for jobs is more than jobs available, unemployment is a natural outcome of situation.
  • Crime – Slum conditions make maintenance of law and order difficult. Patrolling of slums is often not on priority list of law enforcing officers. Unemployment and poverty force people to engage in anti-social activities. Slums therefore, often become a breeding ground for criminal activities.

Environmental Impact

  • Temperature  Increase- Due to factors such as paving over formerly vegetated land, increasing number of residences and high-rise apartments and industries, temperature increase due to increased absorption of Sun’s energy and production of more and more heat due to very intense human activity.
  • Air pollution-Factories and automobiles are most visible symbols of urbanization. Due to emissions of  harmful   gases and smoke from factories and vehicles, air pollution results. High amount of suspended particulate matter in air, particularly in cities, which contributes to allergies and respiratory problems becoming a huge health hazard.
  • Changes in Natural Water Cycle – When urbanization takes place, water cycle changes as cities have more precipitation than surrounding areas. Due to dumping of sewage from factories in water bodies, water pollution occur which often resulting in outbreaks of epidemics.
  • Destruction of Natural Habitats of Flora and Fauna – In making of an urban area, a lot of forested areas are destroyed  which otherwise would have been  naturalhabitats to many birds and animals.

Benefits of urbanization

Urbanization is not all bad, it has its benefits.

  • Efficiency – Cities are often more efficient than rural areas. Less effort is needed to supply basic amenities such as fresh water and electricity. Research and recycling programs are possible only in cities. In most cities flats are prevalent. In flats many people can be accommodated within a small land area.
  • Convenience – Access to education, health, social services and cultural activities is more readily available to people in cities than in villages. Life in cities is much mored comfortable, compared to life in villages. Cities have more advanced communication and transport networks.
  • Concentration of resources – Since most major human settlements were established near natural resources from ancient times, lot of resources are available in and around cities. Facilities to exploit these resources optimally also exist only in cities.
  • Concentration of Educational facilities – More schools, colleges and universities are established in cities to train and develop human resources. Variety of educational choices are available offering students a wide choice for their future careers.
  • Better Social integration – People of many castes ,group sand religions live and work together in cities, which creates better understanding and harmony and helps breakdown social and cultural barriers.
  • Economic Improvement – High-tech industries earn valuable foreign exchange and lot of money for the country.

Linking Population, Poverty and Development

Urbanization: A Majority in Cities

The world is undergoing the largest wave of urban growth in history. In 2008, for the first time in history, more than half of the world’s population will be living in towns and cities. By 2030 this number will swell to almost 5 billion, with urban growth concentrated in Africa and Asia. While mega-cities have captured much public attention, most of the new growth will occur in smaller towns and cities, which have fewer resources to respond to the magnitude of the change.

In principle, cities offer a more favourable setting for the resolution of social and environmental problems than rural areas. Cities generate jobs and income. With good governance, they can deliver education, health care and other services more efficiently than less densely settled areas simply because of their advantages of scale and proximity.

Cities also present opportunities for social mobilization and women’s empowerment. And the density of urban life can relieve pressure on natural habitats and areas of biodiversity. The challenge for the next few decades is learning how to exploit the possibilities urbanization offers. The future of humanity depends on it.

The pace and scale of urbanization

Urban growth, which is mostly due to natural increase, is inevitable. However, the speed and size of the growth are not fixed, and vary widely among regions. The most effective way to slow rates of urban growth is to reduce unwanted fertility in both rural and urban areas. Lowering poverty, empowering women and providing quality reproductive health services all influence fertility preferences and ability to meet them.

Fertility rates are lower in urban than in rural areas throughout the world. However, the fact that such large percentages of people in many developing countries are young means that urban population growth will continue rapidly for years to come. Moreover, impoverished urban women are significantly less likely than their more affluent counterparts to have access to reproductive health or contraception. Not surprisingly, they have higher fertility rates.

Migration is a significant contributor to urbanization, as people move in search of social and economic opportunity. Environmental degradation and conflict may drive people off the land. Often people who leave the countryside to find better lives in the city have no choice but to settle in shantytowns and slums, where they lack access to decent housing and sanitation, health care and education—in effect, trading in rural for urban poverty.

Urbanization of poverty

Poverty is now growing faster in urban than in rural areas. One billion people live in urban slums, which are typically overcrowded, polluted and dangerous, and lack basic services such as clean water and sanitation.

Although urbanization increasingly concentrates poverty, it also provides possibilities for escaping it. For the most part, rich countries are already urbanized, and most of the expected urban growth will occur in less-developed regions, which have fewer resources for coping with the scale of the change.

In the Millennium Declaration, the international community recognized that to halve by 2015 the proportion of people living in extreme poverty, it will have to directly address the needs of the burgeoning population of poor people living in cities. One of the targets set by world leaders in 2000 was to improve significantly the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020. Addressing the housing needs of the urban poor will be critical. A roof and an address in a habitable area are the first step to a better life. Improving access to basic social and health services, including reproductive health care, for poor people in urban slums is also critical to breaking the cycle of poverty.

Source :http://www.unfpa.org/pds/urbanization.htm