Urbanization is the increase in the proportion of people living in towns and cities.
Urbanization occurs because people move from rural areas to urban areas .This usually occurs when a country is still developing.
Causes of Urbanization
•Rural to urban migration is happening on a massive scale due to population pressure and lack of resources in rural areas.
•People living in rural areas are “PULLED” to the city. Often they believe that the standard of living in urban areas will be much better in urban areas.
•Natural increase caused by a decrease in death rates while birth rates remain high.
Effects of Urbanization
•A range of economic, political,social, cultural and environmental factors affect urbanization.
•Urbanization is encouraged socially and culturally through the media.
•Cities have a strong socio-cultural impacts on their surrounding rural areas. The mass media depicts city life as superior to rural life, the “STANDARD” language is deemed that of the national capital, and better services are received in the city due to its wealth.
•The fertility rate in cities is often lower than in rural areas due to the absence of agriculture, the cost of children,foodand living space in cities, and family planning.
•As a city grows, the cost of housing and infrastructure also grows, since there are less water, land and building material available,andgreater congestion problems.Asa city decays in this way, governments often do not meet the service needs of residents and urban development is dominated by private capital.
•Unemployment grows,asdo drug abuse,crimeand homelessness.
Environmental impacts•Waste are a major problem in large cities. •Air pollution results from over-dependence on motorisedtransport and from burning of coal to supply energy.•Water pollution results from poor sewage facililtiesand disposal of industrial heavy metals into waterways.•Vast quantities of solid waste are produced in industries.•Traffic congestion and noise pollution are major environmental impacts of large cities.
Benefits of Urbanisation
•Improvement in economy
•Growth of commercial activities
•Social & cultural integration
•Resources of utilization